A risk factor is something that may increase your risk for a disease. Having one or more risk factors does not mean you will develop lymphoma. Most people who have risk factors never develop the disease.
Hodgkin lymphoma risk factors include:
- Previous infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or mononucleosis.
- Weakened immune system.
- Age: Hodgkin lymphoma occurs most often in early adulthood (between ages 15-40, and especially in the 20s) or late adulthood (after age 55).
- Family history: About 5% of cases have a family link.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk factors include:
- Age: Most cases occur in people older than 60.
- Exposure to certain chemicals, including benzene, herbicides and pesticides.
- Previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
- Radiation exposure.
- Immune system deficiency and HIV infection.
- Infection with HIV, HTLV-1, HHV8, or Epstein-Barr virus.
- Chronic infection with HCV or Helicobacter pylori.