What is Testicular Cancer?

The testicles (also called testes or gonads) are a pair of male sex glands located under the penis in a sac-like pouch called the scrotum.

The testicles, or testes, are the two egg-shaped male sex glands located in the scrotum. These glands produce and store sperm and are the main source of the hormone testosterone. Testicular cancer occurs when cells in one or both of the glands begin to grow erratically and become malignant. The rate of testicular cancer has doubled in American white cisgender men since the 1960s, although a reason has not been identified.

While testicular cancer can affect males of any age, it is most frequently diagnosed in young adults, ages 20 to 35 and is far less common among those over age 50. At this stage of your life, cancer is probably the last thing you expected. The good news is that testicular cancer is highly treatable — and often curable.

However, because this cancer and the treatments for it can impact fertility and sexual function, all patients diagnosed with testicular cancer should talk to their physician about their options for preserving fertility, such as sperm banking, before beginning treatment. Roswell Park’s Oncofertility Program offers in-house fertility counseling to specifically address these needs.

Testicular Cancer Info Sheet thumbnail
Testicular cancer info sheet

What you need to know about testicular cancer.

Download our info sheet

Preserving fertility is a very important discussion in the cancer journey. Dr. Levine explains how many testicular cancer patients go on to have families after treatment.

Comprehensive cancer treatment and care specifically for patients and survivors in their 20s and 30s.

Learn more about the Young Adult Cancer Program at Roswell Park.