Parathyroid Cancer

Parathyroid cancer is very rare. In the United States, fewer than 100 people are diagnosed with parathyroid cancer each year. It occurs mostly in people in their 40s and 50s.

What are the parathyroid glands?

Almost everybody has four parathyroid glands — each about the size of a grain of rice — although some people have more than twice that many. The parathyroid glands may be tiny, but they have a big influence on your health: They regulate your body’s calcium levels, which can affect your heart, kidneys, bones and nervous system.

In most people, the parathyroid glands are located just in back of the thyroid gland, at the front of the throat. But sometimes they’re found in other places, including the chest or even inside the thyroid gland.

Note that the thyroid and parathyroid glands are completely different organs. The name parathyroid just describes the fact that these tiny glands are close to the thyroid gland.

Who’s at risk for parathyroid cancer?

Radiation exposure (including radiation treatments to the head and neck) and long-term use of the drug lithium are risk factors for parathyroid cancer.

In some cases, parathyroid cancer is caused by an inherited gene mutation called HRPT2. In some cases, if it’s appropriate, people with a gene mutation may decide to undergo prophylactic (risk-reducing) surgery or have their doctor keep an eye on the situation so any problems can be caught early.

If you have a family history of parathyroid cancer, Roswell Park's Genetic Screening team can help you understand the science behind genetics counseling so you can make an informed decision about whether you and/or your children should undergo testing for any inherited gene mutations that could affect your cancer risk.

For more information, or to make an appointment for genetic screening, call 1-800-ROSWELL (1-800-767-9355).

What are the symptoms of parathyroid cancer?

Symptoms of parathyroid cancer include:

  • High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia)
  • A lump or swelling in the neck
  • Fatigue or lack of energy; sluggishness; sleepiness
  • Depression
  • Frequent urination
  • Poor appetite, possibly accompanied by upset stomach and vomiting

Treating parathyroid cancer

Parathyroid cancer is usually treated by removing the affected parathyroid glands, a procedure called parathyroidectomy. In most cases, surgeons will also remove part of the thyroid gland (the “lobe” on the same side as the parathyroid gland that is being removed, plus the “isthmus” — the connection between the two thyroid lobes) as well as lymph nodes around the targeted parathyroid gland and any tissue connected to the tumor.

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