Peds Patient Jack in waiting room - April 2022

What are Pediatric Cancers & Blood Disorders?

Types of pediatric cancers

  • Leukemias. Blood cell cancers make up one-third of all childhood cancers. The most common forms of pediatric leukemia are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). About 5% of children will have chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
  • Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors. The most common solid tumors in children are gliomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Lymphomas. Both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (cancers of the lymph system) affect children.
  • Retinoblastoma. This cancer affects the retinas of the eyes.
  • Sarcomas. This disease includes bone cancers such as osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and soft tissue sarcomas. The most common type of pediatric sarcoma is rhabdomyosarcoma, a cancer of muscle, tendon, cartilage, or bone.
  • Wilms Tumor. A form of pediatric kidney cancer.
  • Neuroblastoma. A cancer of the peripheral nervous system that occurs in children.
  • Germ Cell Tumors. These tumors start from germ cells, most often in the testes or ovaries

Types of pediatric blood disorders

Pediatric blood disorders are a group of non-cancerous but serious conditions that affect the ability of blood cells to function properly — carrying nutrients and oxygen, fighting off infection or disease, or clotting. These disorders include:

  • Genetic blood diseases, such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies
  • Bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia, von Willebrand disease or idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
  • Clotting disorders
  • Anemias such as iron deficiency anemia or anemias due to enzyme deficiencies such as G6PD.

Pediatric cancer — what you need to know

Early signs of pediatric cancers and blood disorders are difficult to recognize, and more often indicate common illnesses and injuries.

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