Dr. James Marshall

James Marshall

PhD

Special Interests:

Diet modification and prostate cancer progression Identification and testing of chemoprevention strategies in human populations Evaluating diet as a means of preventing breast cancer recurrence Epidemiologic analysis of predictors of genetic mutation in adenomatous polyps Familial colon cancer registries Independent associations between diet and breast and endometrial cancers

About Me

Biography:

Dr. James R. Marshall joined the faculty of Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center (Roswell Park) in 2002 as Senior Vice President for Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, and Chair of the Department of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences. He came to Roswell Park from Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, where since 1996, he served as Associate Director of Cancer Prevention and Control and Professor of Public Health and Medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine.

Dr. Marshall earned his doctoral degree in Sociology from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1977. He joined the faculty of the Department of Sociology at the University at Buffalo (UB) where he served until 1981. From 1981 to 1996, Dr. Marshall was a faculty member of the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences rising in rank from Assistant to Full Professor (1981-1983), and the School of Health-Related-Professions (1991-1996), both at UB.

Dr. Marshall’s research interests focus on the identification and testing of chemoprevention strategies in human populations; evaluating diet as a means of preventing breast cancer recurrence; epidemiologic analysis of predictors of genetic mutation in adenomatous polyps; familial colon cancer registries; and independent associations between diet and breast and endometrial cancers.

Dr. Marshall is a member of a number of professional organizations, including the American Association for Cancer Research, the American Epidemiologic Society, the American Society of Preventive Oncology, American Society for Clinical Oncology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

Dr. Marshall is Chair, the Cancer Prevention Committee of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, and, until recently a panel member of the NIH/NCI IRG Parent Committee for Cancer Center Support Grants. He is an external advisor to the Knight Cancer Center, Oregon Health and Science University; the Simmons Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; the Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida; and the University of Illinois Chicago Cancer Center and Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin.

Dr. Marshall has authored or co-authored more than 260 journal publications, book chapters and abstracts. He is an Associate Editor for Oncology; Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention; and Cancer Prevention Research (CaPR).

Research Program
Three major components to this research:

  1. Nutrition and cancer: We suspect that diet is related to cancer risk, but our results to date have been equivocal. We are trying to identify barriers to understanding this problem.

  2. Use of biomarkers to measure chemoprevention efficacy: We are especially interested in characteristics of neoplastic but not yet malignant lesions that might reflect progression toward or regression from malignancy.

  3. Molecular epidemiology: Use of molecular characteristics of tumors as a possible key to their etiology, as well as consideration of genetic polymorphisms as they affect the association of environmental exposures and cancer risk.

Credentials

Positions

Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center
  • Distinguished Professor Emeritus
  • Department of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences

Background

Education and Training:

  • PhD - (Sociology) University of California at Los Angeles

Research

Research Overview:

Selenium as a chemopreventive agent: We are testing selenium as a chemopreventive agent against prostate, lung, and colon cancers. Against all of these cancers, we are focusing on high-risk populations.

Use of biomarkers to measure chemoprevention efficacy: We are especially interested in characteristics of neoplastic but not yet malignant lesions that might reflect progression toward or regression from malignancy.

Molecular epidemiology: Use of molecular characteristics of tumors as a possible key to their etiology, as well as consideration of genetic polymorphisms as they affect the association of environmental exposures and cancer risk.


Publications

Zhang X, McCullough ML, Miller AB, Robien K, Rohan TE, Schatzkin A, Sieri S, Spiegelman D, Virtamo J, Wolk A, Willett WC, Zhang SM, Marshall JR, Larsson SC, Albanes D, Beeson WL, Van Den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Flood A, Freudenheim JL, Giovannucci EL, Goldbohm RA, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Jacobs EJ, Krogh V, Smith-Warner SA. Risk of colon cancer and coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake: pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies.Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2010; 102(11):771-783

Kocarnik JD , Hayes RB , Potter JD , Prentice RL , Makar KW , Wallace RB , Hammad N , Marshall JR , Sarto GE , Rajkovic A , Beresford SAA , Caan BJ , Muehling J , Duggan DJ , Hsu L , Berndt SI , Slattery ML , Hutter CM , Peters U. Characterization of 9p24 risk locus and colorectal adenoma and cancer: gene-environment interaction and meta-analysis. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers and prevention 2010; 19(12):3131-3139

Park Y , McCullough ML , Miller AB , Rohan TE , Schatzkin A , Shore R , Sieri S , Stampfer MJ , Virtamo J , Weijenberg M , Willett WC , Wolk A , Zhang SM ,Marshall JR , Limburg PJ , Spiegelman D , Hunter DJ , Albanes D , Bergkvist L , Buring JE , Freudenheim JL , Giovannucci E , Goldbohm RA , Harnack L , Kato I , Krogh V , Leitzmann MF , Smith-Warner SA. Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and use of multiple vitamin supplements and risk of colon cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Cancer causes and control : CCC 2010; 21(11):1745-1757

Warren GW , Gal T , Martella A , Marshall J , Cummings M , Reid M , Sims J , Valentino J , Arnold S , Kudrimoti M. Weekly self-reported tobacco use and cessation during definitive radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 2010;78(3 Suppl. 1):S563

Jayaprakash V, Bogaards A, Frustino J, Gill SR, Wilson BC, Mang TS, Hutson AD, Marshall JR, Johnson T, Ramananda S, Moysich KB, Popat SR, Loree TR, Rigual NR, Merzianu M, Sullivan M, Reid ME. Autofluorescence-guided surveillance for oral cancer. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)2009; 2(11):966-974

Jung EL, Jacobs EJ, Leitzmann MF, Marshall JR, McCullough ML, Miller AB, Rohan TE, Ross JA, Schatzkin A, Schouten LJ, Virtamo J, Wolk A, Zhang SM, Horn-Ross PL, Hakansson N, Mannisto S, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Bernstein L, Van Den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Cho E, English DR, Flood A, Freudenheim JL, Giles GG, Giovannucci E, Smith-Warner SA. Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers and prevention 2009; 18(6):1730-1739

Marshall JR. Nutrition and colon cancer prevention. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 2009; 12(5):539-543

Parsons JK, Newman VA, Mohler JL, Pierce JP, Flatt S, Messer K, Marshall J.Dietary intervention after definitive therapy for localized prostate cancer: results from a pilot study. Canadian journal of urology 2009; 16(3):4648-4654

Tezal M, Wactawski-Wende J, Lillis C, Hauck L, Merzianu M, Rigual NR, Loree TR, Reid ME, Stoler D, Marshall JR, Hyland A, Sullivan MA, Scannapieco FA.Chronic periodontitis and the incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers and prevention 2009;18(9):2406-2412

Hutter CM, Potter JD, Caan BJ, Prentice RL, Makar KW, Wallace R, Hammad N, Marshall JR, Sarto GE, Rajkovic A, Beresford SAA, Hsu L, Curtin K, Muehling J, Duggan DJ, Slattery ML, Peters U. Characterization of the association between 8q24 and colon cancer: gene-environment exploration and meta-analysis. BMC cancer 2010; 10 :670

Ray MJ, Singh SS, Davis W, McCann WE, Mohler JL, Marshall JR. Variability in visual segmentation of digitized prostate tissue microarray cores. Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology 2010; 32(6):301-310

Singh SS, Ray MJ, Davis W, Marshall JR, Sakr WA, Mohler JL. Manual and automated systems in the analysis of images from prostate tissue microarray cores. Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology 2010; 32(6):311-319

Brasky TM, Bonner MR, Dorn J, Marshall JR, Vena JE, Brasure JR, Freudenheim JL. Tonsillectomy and breast cancer risk in the Western New York Diet Study. Cancer causes and control : CCC 2009; 20(3):369-374

Protiva P, Lipkin M, Laird PW, Kleinstein SH, Kim M, Kopelovich L, Pendyala S, Lambrecht RW, Marshall JR, Nelson C, Hopkins ME, Liu Z, Mason JB, Holt PR.Altered folate availability modifies the molecular environment of the human colorectum: implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2011; 4(4):530-543

Laiyemo AO, Lanza E, Kikendall JW, Shike M, Iber F, Burt R, Slattery ML, Weissfeld J, Paskett ED, Lance P, Marshall JR, Caan B, Marcus PM, Cross AJ, Wang Z, Sansbury LB, Albert PS, Murphy G, Schatzkin A. Postpolypectomy colonoscopy surveillance guidelines: predictive accuracy for advanced adenoma at 4 years. Annals of internal medicine 2008; 148(6):419-426

Marshall JR. Prevention of colorectal cancer: diet, chemoprevention, and lifestyle. Gastroenterology clinics of North America 2008; 37(1):73-82, vi

Martinez ME, Marshall JR, Giovannucci E. Diet and cancer prevention: the roles of observation and experimentation. Nature reviews. Cancer 2008;8(9):694-703

Parsons JK, Newman V, Mohler JL, Pierce JP, Paskett E, Marshall J, Cancer and Leukemia Group B. The Men's Eating and Living (MEAL) study: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B pilot trial of dietary intervention for the treatment of prostate cancer. Urology 2008; 72(3):633-637

Parsons JK, Newman VA, Mohler JL, Pierce JP, Flatt S, Marshall J. Dietary modification in patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance: a randomized, multicentre feasibility study. BJU international 2008;101(10):1227-1231

Reid ME, Clark LC, Alberts DS, Combs GF Jr, Jacobs E, Turnbull B, Natarajan N, Slate E, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Marshall JR. The nutritional prevention of cancer: 400 mcg per day selenium treatment. Nutrition and cancer 2008; 60(2):155-163

Frankel PH, Reid ME, Marshall JR. A permutation test for a weighted Kaplan-Meier estimator with application to the nutritional prevention of cancer trial.Contemporary clinical trials 2007; 28(4):343-347

Gregory-Mercado KY, Staten LK, Gillespie C, Ranger-Moore J, Thomson CA, Giuliano AR, Will JC, Ford ES, Marshall J. Ethnicity and nutrient intake among Arizona WISEWOMAN participants. Journal of women's health (2002) 2007;16(3):379-389

Koushik A, Larsson SC, Leitzmann MF, Marshall JR, McCullough ML, Miller AB, Pietinen P, Rohan TE, Schatzkin A, Sieri S, Virtanen MJ, Wolk A, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Zhang SM, Krogh V, Kato I, Jacobs DR Jr, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Beeson WL, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Calle EE, Cho E, Fraser GE, Freudenheim JL, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Goldbohm RA, Harnack L, Smith-Warner SA. Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute2007; 99(19):1471-1483

Lee JE, Mannisto S, McCullough ML, Miller AB, Parker AS, Pietinen P, Rodriguez C, Rohan TE, Schatzkin A, Schouten LJ, Willett WC, Wolk A, Zhang SM, Marshall JR, Leitzmann M, Horn-Ross PL, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Adami HO, Bernstein L, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Cho E, English D, Folsom AR, Freudenheim JL, Gile GG, Giovannucci E, Smith-Warner SA.Intakes of coffee, tea, milk, soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. International journal of cancer 2007;121(10):2246-2253

Marshall J. Invited commentary: Fewell and colleagues--fuel for debate.American journal of epidemiology 2007; 166(6):656-658; discussion 659-61

McCann SE, McCann WE, Hong CC, Marshall JR, Edge SB, Trevisan M, Muti P, Freudenheim JL. Dietary patterns related to glycemic index and load and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer in the Western New York Exposure and Breast Cancer Study. American journal of clinical nutrition2007; 86(2):465-471

Moysich KB, ipd_4, Beehler GP, Marshall JR, Menezes RJ, Baker JA, Weiss JR, Chanan-Khan A. Regular analgesic use and risk of multiple myeloma.Leukemia research 2007; 31(4):547-551

Ondracek RP, Parker F, Allen A, Davis W, Ray M, McCann W, Marshall JR.Standardization of nuclear morphometry-based biomarkers. Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology 2007; 29(5):309-316

Pierce JP, Hajek RA, Hollenbach K, Jones LA, Karanja N, Madlensky L,Marshall J, Newman VA, Ritenbaugh C, Thomson CA, Wasserman L, Gold EB, Faerber S, Emond JA, Natarajan L, Caan BJ, Parker BA, Greenberg ER, Flatt SW, Rock CL, Kealey S, Al-Delaimy WK, Bardwell WA, Carlson RW, Stefanick ML. Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2007; 298(3):289-298

Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Marshall J, Messer K. Re: Dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome: interim efficacy results from the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2007; 99(11):900; author reply 900-901

Pierce JP, Karanja N, Kealey S, Madlensky L, Marshall J, Ritenbaugh C, Rock CL, Stefanick ML, Thomson C, Wasserman L, Jones LA, Hollenbach K, Newman VA, Natarajan L, Flatt SW, Al-Delaimy WK, Caan BJ, Emond JA, Faerber S, Gold EB, Hajek RA, Parker BA. Telephone counseling helps maintain long-term adherence to a high-vegetable dietary pattern. Journal of nutrition 2007; 137(10):2291-2296

Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, Donahue RP, Trevisan M, Combs GF, Cappuccio FP, Ceriello A, Reid ME. Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.Annals of internal medicine 2007; 147(4):217-223

Bobe G, Schatzkin A, Marshall JR, Daston C, Lance P, Kikendall JW, Iber F, Paskett E, Caan B, Slattery ML, Ashby J, Kahle L, Cross AJ, Albert PS, Sansbury LB, Lanza E. Dietary flavonoids and colorectal adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers and prevention2008; 17(6):1344-1353

Lanza E, Schatzkin A, Brewer BK, Kikendall JW, Shike M, Iber F, Burt R, Slattery M, Weissfeld J, Paskett ED, Lance P, Marshall JR, Caan B, Albert PS, Murphy G, Yu B, Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group. The polyp prevention trial continued follow-up study: no effect of a low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit, and -vegetable diet on adenoma recurrence eight years after randomization.Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers and prevention 2007; 16(9):1745-1752

Tezal M, Wactawski-Wende J, Hauck L, Lillis C, Loree T, Hyland A, Marshall JR, Reid ME, Sullivan MA, Scannapieco FA. Chronic periodontitis and the risk of tongue cancer. Archives of otolaryngology--head and neck surgery 2007;133(5):450-454

Cummings KM, Hyland A, Zevon M, Kelly M, Long MA, Demmy TL, Dexter E, Reed R, Epstein J, Houston T, Jenkins D, Mahoney M, O'Connor R, Marshall JR, Reid ME, Smith JL, Chmura M, Warren GW. An institutional universal standardized tobacco use assessment and intervention in cancer patients : ASCO Meeting Abstracts Part 1. Journal of clinical oncology 2011; 29(15 Suppl.):e16543

Warren GW, Kasza K, Reid ME, Cummings KM, Marshall JR. Prospective structured smoking behavior assessment at diagnosis and long-term cancer survival : ASCO Meeting Abstracts Part 1. Journal of clinical oncology 2011;29(15 Suppl.):1557

Liu S, Marshall J, Ip C, Dong Y. Down-regulation of telomerase by selenium in prostate cancer cells. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2007; 48:6-7

Parker FL, Marshall JR, Smith GJ. Validation of self-reported race using the sequenom massarray compact system to quantitatively determine genomic ancestry. BJU international 2007; 100(Suppl. 3):34

Parker FL, Marshall JR, Smith GJ. Validation of self-reported race using the Sequenom MassArray compact system to quantitavely determine genomic ancestry. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2008; 49:911

Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Cann BJ, Parker BA, Greenberg ER, Flatt SW, Rock CL, Kealey S, Al-Delaimy WK, Bardwell RA, Carlson R, Emond JA, Faerber S, Gold B, Hajek RA, Hollenbach K, Jones LA, Karanja N, Madlensky L, Marshall J, Newman VA, Ritenbaugh C, Thomson CA, Wasserman L, Stefanick ML. The influence of a very high vegetable-fruit-fiber, low-fat diet on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: results from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial. Breast cancer research and treatment 2007;106(Suppl. 1):S16

Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, Donahue RP, Trevisan M, Cappuccio FP, Combs GF, Clark LC, Reid ME. Effects of selenium supplementation on type 2 diabetes incidence: Secondary analyses in a randomized clinical trial.Circulation 2007; 115(8):E226

Jayaprakash V, Marshall JR. Selenium and other antioxidants for chemoprevention of gastrointestinal cancers. Best practice and research. Clinical gastroenterology 2011; 25(4-5):507-518

Jayaprakash V, Reid M, Hatton E, Merzianu M, Rigual N, Marshall J, Gill S, Frustino J, Wilding G, Loree T, Popat S, Sullivan M. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in epithelial dysplasia of oral cavity and oropharynx: a meta-analysis, 1985-2010. Oral oncology 2011; 47(11):1048-1054

Kiviniemi MT, Bennett A, Zaiter M, Marshall JR. Individual-level factors in colorectal cancer screening: a review of the literature on the relation of individual-level health behavior constructs and screening behavior. Psycho-oncology 2011; 20(10):1023-1033

Kudrimoti MR, Arnold SM, Valentino J, Gal T, Hyland A, Singh A, Rangnekar V, Cummings KM, Marshall JR, Warren GW. The accuracy of tobacco assessment during definitive radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer : ASCO Meeting Abstracts Part 1. Journal of clinical oncology 2011; 29(15 Suppl.):1556

Marshall JR, Ip C, Romano K, Fetterly G, Fakih M, Jovanovic B, Perloff M, Crowell J, Davis W, French-Christy R, Dew A, Coomes M, Bergan R. Methyl selenocysteine: single-dose pharmacokinetics in men. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2011; 4(11):1938-1944

Marshall JR, Tangen CM, Sakr WA, Wood Jr DP, Berry DL, Klein EA, Lippman SM, Parnes HL, Alberts DS, Jarrard DF, Lee WR, Gaziano JM, Crawford ED, Ely B, Ray M, Davis W, Minasian LM, Thompson Jr IM. Phase III trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: SWOG S9917. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2011; 4(11):1761-1769

Grobmyer SR, Mortellaro VE, Moore Higgs G, Hochwald SN, Mendenhall NP, Copeland III EM, Cance WG. Is there a role for routine use of MRI in selection of patients for breast-conserving cancer therapy? . Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2008; 206(5):1045-1050; discussion 1050-1052

Bao Y, Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Albanes D, Anderson KE, Bernstein L, van den Brandt PA, English DR, Freudenheim JL, Fuchs CS, Giles GG, Giovannucci E, Goldbohm RA, Hakansson N, Horn-Ross PL, Jacobs EJ, Kitahara CM, Marshall JR, Miller AB, Robien K, Rohan TE, Schatzkin A, Stevens VL, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Virtamo J, Wolk A, Ziegler RG, Smith-Warner SA. Folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2011;103(24):1840-1850

Ligibel JA, Meyerhardt J, Pierce JP, Najita J, Shockro L, Campbell N, Newman VA, Barbier L, Hacker E, Wood M, Marshall J, Paskett E, Shapiro C. Impact of a telephone-based physical activity intervention upon exercise behaviors and fitness in cancer survivors enrolled in a cooperative group setting. Breast cancer research and treatment 2012; 132(1):205-213

Mannava S, Omilian AR, Wawrzyniak JA, Fink EE, Zhuang D, Miecznikowski JC, Marshall JR, Soengas MS, Sears RC, Morrison CD, Nikiforov MA. PP2A-B56alpha controls oncogene-induced senescence in normal and tumor human melanocytic cells. Oncogene 2012; 31(12):1484-1492

Payne Ondracek RD, Hayn MH, Poch MA, Ray MJ, Davis W, Curtis A, Kim HL, Morrison CD, Marshall JR, Mohler JL. The effect of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy on long-term outcome after radical prostatectomy.Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting2011; 52:Abstract #4664

Warren GW, Arnold SM, Valentino JP, Gal TJ, Hyland AJ, Singh AK, Rangnekar VM, Cummings KM, Marshall JR, Kudrimoti MR. Accuracy of self-reported tobacco assessments in a head and neck cancer treatment population. Radiotherapy and oncology 2012; 103(1):45-48

Gamba CA, Stefanick ML, Shikany JM, Larson J, Linos E, Sims ST, Marshall J, Van Horn L, Zeitouni N, Tang JY. Low-fat dietary pattern and skin cancer risk: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled dietary modification trial. Journal of investigative dermatology 2012; 132(Suppl. 1):S44

Marshall JR. Diet and prostate cancer prevention. World journal of urology2012; 30(2):157-165

Martinez ME, Jacobs ET, Baron JA, Marshall JR, Byers T. Dietary supplements and cancer prevention: balancing potential benefits against proven harms.Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2012; 104(10):732-739

Ondracek RP, Hayn MH, Poch MA, Davis W, Curtis A, Kim HL, Morrison CD, Mohler J, Marshall JR. The effect of BMI at time of surgery on long-term outcome after radical prostatectomy : ASCO Meeting Abstracts Part 1. Journal of clinical oncology 2012; 30(15 Suppl.):Abstract #e15203

Peters EN, Torres E, Toll BA, Cummings KM, Gritz ER, Hyland A, Herbst RS,Marshall JR, Warren GW. Tobacco assessment in actively accruing national cancer institute cooperative group program clinical trials. Journal of clinical oncology 2012; 30(23):2869-2875

Tezal M, Scannapieco FA, Wactawski-Wende J, Hyland A, Marshall JR, Rigual NR, Stoler DL. Local inflammation and human papillomavirus status of head and neck cancers. Archives of otolaryngology--head and neck surgery 2012;138(7):669-675