Translational Imaging Selected Publications

Journal Covers

Clinical Cancer Research, Seshadri et al., 2005

Journal of Biological Chemistry, Jell et al., 2007

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, Seshadri and Ciesielski., 2009

Angiogenesis, Seshadri et al., 2011

Oral Oncology, Folaron et al., 2013

Cancer Prevention Research, Bothwell et al., 2015

Inorganic Chemistry, Olatunde, et al. 2014

Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, Verma, et.al. 2018

2018

  • Shafirstein G, Bellnier D, Oakley E, Hamilton S, Habitzruther M, Tworek L, Hutson L, Spernyak JA, Sexton S, Curtin L, Turowski S, Arshad H, and Henderson BA “Irradiance Controls Photodynamic Efficacy and Tissue Heating in Experimental Tumors: Implication for Interstitial PDT of Locally Advanced Cancer” British Journal of Cancer 2018 In press
  • Vincent Chong VK, Dejong H, Rich LJ, Patti A, Merzianu M, Hershberger PA, Seshadri M. Impact of age on disease progression and microenvironment in oral cancer. J Dent Res. 2018. May 1:22034518775736. PMID: 29750890
  • Burkard-Mandel L, O’Neill R, Colligan S, Seshadri M, Abrams SA. Tumor-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin enhances lung metastasis through an alveolar macrophage-dependent mechanism. Oncoimmunol. 2018. Jan 16;7(5):e1419115. PMID:29721367.PMCID: PMC5927533
  • Govindan SV, Cruz RD, Raghavan N, Bavle RM, Ravi RD, Pillai V, Ramakrishnan A, Illiaraja J, Hedne N, Ramachandran B, Aravindakshan J, Seshadri M, Kekatpure VD, Hicks W, Suresh A, Kuriakose MA. CD44 expression at the invasive tumor front: effect on patterning and prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Oral Cancer. 2018. 2:45-55
  • Verma A, Rich LJ, Vincent-Chong VK, Seshadri M. Visualizing the effects of metformin on tumor growth, vascularity, and metabolism in head and neck cancer. Oral Pathol Med. 2018 47(5): 484-491. PMID:29573032. PMCID: PMC5966030.
  • Rich LJ, Miller A, Singh AK, Seshadri M. Photoacoustic imaging as a biomarker of radiation therapeutic efficacy in head and neck cancer. Theranostics. 2018. 8(8):2064-2078. PMID: 29721063; PMCID: PMC5928871

2017

  • Ku SY, Rosario S, Wang Y, Mu P, Seshadri M, Goodrich ZW, Goodrich MM, Labbé DP, Gomez EC, Wang J, Long HW, Xu B, Brown M, Loda M, Sawyers CL, Ellis L, Goodrich DW. Rb1 and Trp53 cooperate to suppress prostate cancer lineage plasticity, metastasis, and antiandrogen resistance. Science. 2017 Jan 6;355(6320):78-83. PMID: 2805967.
  • Lu Q, Ericson D, Song Y, Zhu C, Ye R, Liu S, Spernyak JA, Du D, Li H, Wu Y, Lin Y. MnO2 Nanotube-Based NanoSearchlight for Imaging of Multiple MicroRNAs in Live Cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017 Jul 19;9(28):23325-23332. Epub 2017 Jul 3. PMID: 28493665
  • Miranda D, Carter K, Luo D, Shao S, Geng J, Li C, Chitgupi U, Turowski SG, Li N, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Spernyak JA, Lovell JF. Multifunctional Liposomes for Image-Guided Intratumoral Chemo-Phototherapy. Adv Healthc Mater. 2017 Aug;6(16). doi: 10.1002/adhm.201700253. Epub 2017 May 15. PMID:28504409
  • Lerman I, Garcia-Hernandez, ML, Rangel-Moreno J, Chiriboga L, Pan C, Nastiuk,KL, Krolewski JJ, Sen A, Hammes, SR. Infiltrating Myeloid Cells Exert Pro-Tumorigenic Actions via Neutrophil Elastase Mol Cancer Res. 2017 Sep;15(9):1138-1152. PMC5581693
  • Shao S, Do TN, Razi A, Chitgupi U, Geng J, Alsop RJ, Dzikovski BG, Rheinstädter MC, Ortega J, Karttunen M, Spernyak JA, Lovell JF. Design of Hydrated Porphyrin-Phospholipid Bilayers with Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Contrast. Small. 2017 Jan;13(1). Epub 2016 Oct 14.
  • Rich LJ, Sexton S, Curtin L, Seshadri M. Spatiotemporal Optoacoustic Mapping of Tumor Hemodynamics in a Clinically Relevant Orthotopic Rabbit Model of Head and Neck Cancer. Transl Oncol. 2017 Oct;10(5):839-845. PMID: 2866260.
  • Siddappa G, Kulsum S, Ravindra DR, Kumar VV, Raju N, Raghavan N, Sudheendra HV, Sharma A, Sunny SP, Jacob T, Kuruvilla BT, Benny M, Antony B, Seshadri M, Lakshminarayan P, Hicks W Jr, Suresh A, Kuriakose MA. Curcumin and metformin-mediated chemoprevention of oral cancer is associated with inhibition of cancer stem cells. Mol Carcinog. 2017 Nov;56(11):2446-2460. PMID: 28618017.
  • Adelaiye-Ogala R, Budka J, Damayanti NP, Arrington J, Ferris M, Hsu CC, Chintala S, Orillion A, Miles KM, Shen L, Elbanna M, Ciamporcero E, Arisa S, Pettazzoni P, Draetta GF, Seshadri M, Hancock B, Radovich M, Kota J, Buck M, Keilhack H, McCarthy BP, Persohn SA, Territo PR, Zang Y, Irudayaraj J, Tao WA, Hollenhorst P, Pili R. EZH2 Modifies Sunitinib Resistance in Renal Cell Carcinoma by Kinome Reprogramming. Cancer Res. 2017 Dec 1;77(23):6651-6666. PMID: 258978636.

2016

  • Bothwell KD, Folaron M, Seshadri M. Preclinical activity of the vascular disrupting agent OXi4503 against head and neck cancer. Cancers (Basel);2016 Jan 7;8(1):pii.E11
  • Tutino VM, Liaw N, Spernyak JA, Ionita CN, Siddiqui AH, Kolega J, Meng H. Assessment of Vascular Geometry for Bilateral Carotid Artery Ligation to Induce Early Basilar Terminus Aneurysmal Remodeling in Rats. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2016;13(1):82-92
  • Rich L and Seshadri M. Photoacoustic imaging of tumor and normal tissue response to radiation. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 7;6:21237.
  • Law WC, Xu Z, Yong KT, Liu X, Swihart MT, Seshadri M and Prasad PN. Manganese-doped near-infrared emitting nanocrystals for in vivo biomedical imaging. Opt. Express. 2016;24(16):17553-17561
  • Aalinkeel R, Nair B, Mahajan SD, Reynolds JL, Sykes DE, Chadha KC, Cheng C, Turowski SG, Bothwell KD, Seshadri M, Schwartz SA. Nanotherapy Silencing the Interleukin-8 Gene Produces Regression of Prostate Cancer by Inhibition of Angiogenesis. Immunology. 2016 Aug;148(4):387-406.
  • Rich LJ, Winslow T, Repasky EA, Seshadri M, Singh AK. Enhanced tumor perfusion by systemic heating in a patient with head and neck cancer: Implications for radiotherapy. Int J. Hyperthermia. 2016 Aug;32(5):539-42
  • Kim M, Neznanov N, Wilfong CD, Fleyshman DI, Purmal AA, Haderski G, Stanhope-Baker P, Burkhart CA, Gurova KV, Gudkov AV, Skitzki JJ. Preclinical Validation of a Single-Treatment Infusion Modality That Can Eradicate Extremity Melanomas. Cancer Res. 2016 Nov 15;76(22):6620-6630
  • Tsitovich PB, Cox JM, Spernyak JA, Morrow JR. Gear Up for a pH Shift: A Responsive Iron(II) 2-Amino-6-picolyl-Appended Macrocyclic paraCEST Agent That Protonates at a Pendent Group. Inorg Chem. 2016 Nov 21;55(22):12001-12010
  • Folaron M, Seshadri M. Bioluminescence and MR Imaging of the Safety and Efficacy of Vascular Disruption in Gliomas. Mol Imaging Biol. 2016 Dec;18(6):860-869.

2015

  • Rich L, Seshadri M. Photoacoustic Imaging of Vascular Hemodynamics: Validation with Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent MR imaging. Radiology.2015;275:110-118.
  • Sajisevi M, Rigual NR, Bellnier DA, Seshadri M. Image-guided Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Preclinical investigation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol. 2015 Mar;27(2):159-165
  • Kalmuk J, Folaron M, Buchinger J, Pili R, Seshadri M. Multimodal imaging-guided preclinical trials of vascular targeting in prostate cancer. Oncotarget 2015. 6(27):24376-92.
  • Bothwell KD, Shaurova T, Merzianu M, Suresh A, Kuriakose MA, Johnson CS, Hershberger PA and Seshadri M. Impact of short-term 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the chemopreventive efficacy of erlotinib against oral cancer. Cancer Prev Res. 2015. 8(9):765-76. [Cover feature].
  • Rich L and Seshadri M. Photoacoustic Imaging of Salivary Glands. Biomed Opt Express. 6(9):3157-62.
  • Tutino VM, Liaw N, Spernyak JA, Ionita CN, Siddiqui AH, Kolega J, Meng H. Assessment of Vascular Geometry for Bilateral Carotid Artery Ligation to Induce Early Basilar Terminus Aneurysmal Remodeling in Rats. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2015 Oct 27.
  • Olatunde AO, Bond CJ, Dorazio SJ, Cox JM, Benedict JB, Daddario MD, Spernyak JA, Morrow JR. Six, Seven or Eight Coordinate Fe(II) , Co(II) or Ni(II) Complexes of Amide-Appended Tetraazamacrocycles for ParaCEST Thermometry. Chemistry. 2015 Dec 7;21(50):18290-300.

2014

  • Sharma R, Buitrago S, Pitoniak R, Gibbs J, Curtain L, Seshadri M, Repasky EA, and Hylander BL. Influence of tissue implantation site on the sensitivity of pancreatic tumor xenografts to Apo2L/TRAIL therapy. Pancreas. 2014 Mar;43(2):298-305. PMID: 24518511.
  • Olatunde AO, Cox JM, Daddario MD, Spernyak JA, Benedict JB, Morrow JR. Seven-coordinate Co(II), Fe(II) and six-coordinate Ni(II) amide-appended macrocyclic complexes as ParaCEST agents in biological media. Inorg Chem. 2014 Aug 18;53(16):8311-21. doi: 10.1021/ic5006083. Epub 2014 May 13. PMID: 24820102.
  • Zhang Y, Jeon M, Rich LJ, Hong H, Geng J, Zhang Y, Shi S, Barnhart TE, Alexandridis P, Huizinga JD, Seshadri M, Cai W, Kim C, Lovell JF. Non-invasive multimodal functional imaging of the intestine with frozen micellar naphthalocyanines. Nat Nanotechnol. 2014 Aug;9(8):631-8. PMID: 24997526
  • Miles KM, Seshadri M, Ciamporcero E, Adelaiye R, Gillard B, Sotomayor P, Attwood K, Shen L, Conroy D, Kuhnert F, Lalani AS, Thurston G, Pili R. Dll4 blockade potentiates the anti-tumor effects of VEGF inhibition in renal cell carcinoma patient-derived xenografts. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 13;9(11):e112371. PMID: 25393540.
  • Gil M, Komorowski MP, Seshadri M, Rokita H, McGray AJ, Opyrchal M, Odunsi KO, Kozbor D. CXCL12/CXCR4 Blockade by Oncolytic Virotherapy Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Growth by Decreasing Immunosuppression and Targeting Cancer-Initiating Cells. J Immunol. 2014 Nov 15;193(10):5327-37. PMID: 25320277.

2013

  • Gil M, Seshadri M, Komorowski MP, Abrams SI, Kozbor D. Targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling with oncolytic virotherapy disrupts tumor vasculature and inhibits breast cancer metastases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013 Apr 2; 110(14): PMCID: PMC3619300
  • Ma Y, Yu Wei-Dong, Su B, Seshadri M, Luo W, Trump DL, Johnson CS. Regulation of motility, invasion and metastatic potential of squamous cell carcinoma by 1,25D3. Cancer. 2013; 119(3): 563-74. PMCID: PMC3485450.
  • Gil M, Seshadri M, Komorowski MP, Abrams SI, Kozbor D. Targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling with oncolytic virotherapy disrupts tumor vasculature and inhibits breast cancer metastases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 2; 110(14):E1291-300.
  • Francescutti V, Rivera L, Seshadri M, Kim M, Haslinger M, Camoriano M, Attwood K, Kane JM 3rd, Skitzki JJ. The benefit of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of colorectal carcinomatosis. Oncol Rep. 2013 Jul; 30(1):35-42. Epub 2013 May 15.
  • Burdelya LG, Brackett CM, Kojouharov B, Gitlin II, Leonova KI, Gleiberman AS, Aygun-Sunar S, Veith J, Johnson C, Haderski GJ, Stanhope-Baker P, Allamaneni S, Skitzki J, Zeng M, Martsen E, Medvedev A, Scheblyakov D, Artemicheva NM, Logunov DY, Gintsburg AL, Naroditsky BS, Makarov SS, Gudkov AV. Central role of liver in anticancer and radioprotective activities of Toll-like receptor 5 agonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 14; 110(20):E1857-66. Epub 2013 Apr 29. Folaron M, Kalmuk J, Lockwood J, Frangou C, Vokes J, Turowski SG, Merzianu M, Rigual NR, Sullivan-Nasca M, Kuriakose MA, Hicks WL Jr, Singh AK, Seshadri M. Vascular priming enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy against head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol. 2013 Sep; 49(9):893-902. [Featured on the cover]
  • Folaron M, Kalmuk J, Lockwood J, Frangou C, Vokes J, Turowski SG, Merzianu M, Rigual NR, Sullivan-Nasca M, Kuriakose MA, Hicks WL Jr, Singh AK, Seshadri M. Vascular priming enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy against head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol. 2013 Sep;49(9):893-902. PMID: 23890930. [Cover Feature].
  • Kurenova E, Liao J, He DH, Hunt D, Yemma MM, Bshara Y, Seshadri M, Cance WG. The FAK scaffold inhibitor C4 disrupts FAK-VEGFR3 signaling and inhibits pancreatic cancer growth. Oncotarget. 2013. Oct;4(10:1632-46.
  • Dorazio SJ, Olatunde AO, Spernyak JA, Morrow JR. CoCEST: Cobalt(II) paraCEST MRI Contrast Agents. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013. Nov; 49(85):10025-7.
  • Tsitovich PB, Spernyak JA, Morrow JR. CoCEST: A Cobalt(II) PARACEST MRI Contrast Agent Responsive to pO2 and Redox Environment. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Dec 23;52(52):13997-4000.
  • Tsitovich PB, Spernyak JA, Morrow JR. A redox-activated MRI contrast agent that switches between paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 Dec 23;52(52):13997-4000.

2012

  • Roy Chaudhuri T, Arnold RD, Yang J, Turowski SG, Qu Y, Spernyak JA, Mazurchuk R, Mager DE, Straubinger RM. Mechanisms of tumor vascular priming by a nanoparticulate Doxorubicin formulation. Pharm Res. 2012; 29(12): 3312-24. PMCID: PMC3631713
  • Ding X, Bian G, Leigh ND, Qiu J, McCarthy PL, Liu H, Aygun-Sunar S, Burdelya LG, Gudkov AV, Cao X. A TLR5 Agonist Enhances CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Graft-versus-Tumor Effect without Exacerbating Graft-versus-Host Disease. J Immunol. 2012; 189(10): 4719-27. PMID: 23045613
  • Ellis L, Shah P, Hammers H, Lehet K, Sotomayor P, Azabdaftari G, Seshadri M, Pili R. Vascular disruption in combination with mTOR inhibition in renal cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11(2): 383-92. PMID: 22084164
  • Erogbogbo F, Chang C-W, May JL… Seshadri M, et al. Bioconjugation of luminescent silicon quantum dots to gadolinium ions for bioimaging applications Nanoscale. 2012; 4(17): 5483-9. PMID: 22854899
  • Olatunde AO, Dorazio SJ, Spernyak JA, Morrow JR. The NiCEST Approach: Nickel(II) ParaCEST MRI Contrast Agents. J Am Chem Soc. 2012; 134(45): 18503-5. PMID: 23102112
  • Wang ES, Pili R, Seshadri M. Modulation of chemotherapeutic efficacy by vascular disrupting agents: Optimizing the sequence and schedule. J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(7):760-1. PMID: 22291088, PMCID pending

2011

  • Bhattacharya A, Turowski SG, Dominguez San Martin I, Rajput A, Rustum YM, Hoffman RM, and Seshadri M. Magnetic resonance and fluorescence protein imaging of the antiangiogenic and antitumor efficacy of selenium in an orthotopic model of human colon cancer. Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(2):387-93. PMCID: PMC3129004
  • Cao S, Durrani FA, Toth K, Rustum YM, Seshadri M. Bevacizumab enhances the therapeutic efficacy of Irinotecan against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts. Oral Oncol. 2011; 47(6): 459-66. PMCID: PMC310924.
  • Dorazio SJ, Tsitovich PB, Siters KE, Spernyak JA, Morrow JR. Iron(II) PARACEST MRI contrast agents. J Am Chem Soc. 2011; 133(36):14154-6. PMCID: PMC3170541.
  • Gil M, Bieniasz M, Seshadri M, Fisher D, Ciesielski MJ, Chen Y, Pandey RK, Kozbor D. Photodynamic therapy augments the efficacy of oncolytic vaccinia virus against primary and metastatic tumors in mice. Br J Cancer. 2011; 105(10):1512-21. PMCID: PMC3242530
  • Sen A, Capitano ML, Spernyak JA, Schueckler JT, Thomas S, Singh AK, Evans SS, Hylander BL, Repasky EA. Mild elevation of body temperature reduces tumor interstitial fluid pressure and hypoxia and enhances efficacy of radiotherapy in murine tumor models.Cancer Res. 2011; 71(11): 3872-80. PMCID: PMC3184616
  • Seshadri M, Sacadura NT, Coulthard T. Monitoring antivascular therapy in head and neck cancer xenografts using contrast-enhanced MR and US imaging. Angiogenesis. 2011; 14(4): 491-501. PMID: 21901534
  • Ito F, Camoriano M, Seshadri M, Evans SS, Kane J, Skitzki JJ. Water: A simple solution for tumor spillage. Ann Surg Oncol.2011; 18(8): 2357-63. PMID: 21301970
  • Paul AK, Lobarinas E, Simmons R, Wack D, Luisi JC, Spernyak J, Mazurchuk R, Abdel-Nabi H, Salvi R. Metabolic imaging of rat brain during pharmacologically-induced tinnitus.NeuroImage, 2009; 44(2): 312-8. PMCID: PMC2613016 Riddell JR, Bshara W, Moser M, Spernyak JA, Foster BA, Gollnick SO. Peroxiredoxin 1 Controls Prostate Cancer Growth through Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dependent Regulation of Tumor Vasculature. Cancer Res. 2011; 71(5): 1637-46. PMCID: PMC3076642

2010

  • Goswami LN, White WH, Spernyak JA, Ethirajan M, Chen Y, Missert JR, Morgan J, Mazurchuk R, Pandey RK. Synthesis of Tumor-avid Photosensitizer-Gd(III)DTPA conjugates: impact of the number of gadolinium units in T1/T2 relaxivity, intracellular localization, and photosensitizing efficacy. Bioconjug Chem. 2010; 21(5):816-27. PMCID: PMC2889622
  • Kumar R, Ohulchanskyy TY, Turowski SG, Thompson ME, Seshadri M, Prasad PN. Combined magnetic resonance and optical imaging of head and neck tumor xenografts using Gadolinium-labelled phosphorescent polymeric nanomicelles. Head Neck Oncol. 2010; 2:35. PMCID: PMC3003650
  • Li F, Cheng Q, Ling X, Stablewski A, Tang L, Foster BA, Johnson CS, Rustum YM, Porter CW. Generation of a novel transgenic mouse model for bioluminescent monitoring of survivin gene activity in vivo at various pathophysiological processes: survivin expression overlaps with stem cell markers. Am J Pathol. 2010; 176(4):1629-38. PMCID: PMC2843455
  • Spernyak JA, White WH 3rd, Ethirajan M … Pandey RK, et al. Hexylether derivative of pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) on conjugating with 3gadolinium(III) aminobenzyldiethyl-enetriaminepentaacetic acid shows potential for in vivo tumor imaging (MR, Fluorescence) and photodynamic therapy. Bioconjug Chem. 2010; 21(5):828-35. PMCID: PMC2874103

2009

  • Bhattacharya A, Tóth K, Sen A, Seshadri M, Cao S, Durrani FA, Faber E, Repasky EA, Rustum YM. Inhibition of Colon Cancer Growth by Methylselenocysteine-Induced Angiogenic Chemomodulation Is Influenced by Histologic Characteristics of the Tumor. Clin Colorectal Cancer 2009; 8(3) 155-162. PMCID: PMC2823082.
  • Cao X, Leonard K, Collins LI, Cai SF, Mayer JC, Payton JE, Walter MJ, Piwnica-Worms D, Schreiber RD, Ley TJ. Interleukin 12 stimulates IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition of tumor-induced regulatory T-cell proliferation and enhances tumor clearance. Cancer Res. 2009; 69(22): 8700-9. PMCID: PMC2783758
  • Chung I, Han G, Seshadri M, Gillard BM, Yu WD, Foster BA, Trump DL, Johnson CS. Role of Vitamin D Receptor in the Antiproliferative Effects of Calcitriol in Tumor-Derived Endothelial Cells and Tumor In vivo. Cancer Res 2009; 69(3): 967-75. PMCID: PMC2752059
  • Seshadri M, Bellnier DA. The vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid improves the antitumor efficacy and shortens treatment associated with Photochlor-sensitized photodynamic therapy in vivo. PhotochemPhotobiol, 2009; 85(1):50-6. PMCID: PMC2897069
  • Seshadri M, Ciesielski MJ. MRI-based characterization of vascular disruption by 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-acetic acid in gliomas.J Cer Blood Flow Meta 2009; 29(8): 1373-82. PMCID: PMC2902992
  • Seshadri M, Toth K. Acute Vascular Disruption by 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid in an orthotopic model of human head and neck cancer. Transl Oncol. 2009; 2(3):121-7. PMCID: PMC2730133
  • Seshadri M, Merzianu M, Tang H, Rigual NR, Sullivan-Nasca M, Loree TR, Popat SR, Repasky EA, Hylander BL. Establishment and characterization of patient tumor-derived head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts. Cancer Biol Therapy, 2009; 8(23): 2261-2269. PMCID: PMC2906774

2008

  • Bhattacharya A, Seshadri M, Oven SD, Toth K, Vaughan M, Pendyala L, Rustum YM. Tumor vascular maturation and improved drug delivery by the organoselenium compound methylselenocysteine. Clin. Cancer Res. 2008; 14(12): 3926-3932. PMCID: PMC2504718
  • Seshadri M, Bellnier DA, Vaughan LA, Spernyak JA, Mazurchuk R, Foster TH, Henderson BW. Light delivery over extended time periods enhances the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(9):2796-2805. PMCID: PMC2805854