The goal of cancer risk assessment and screening for HGSOC is to detect early-stage malignancies in the asymptomatic pre-clinical phase of disease, such that subsequent treatment will have a significant impact on reducing disease morbidity and mortality .
Recently, several lines of evidence indicate that the majority of ovarian cancers arise from the secretory cells of the fallopian tube [7-9]. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) constitutes the earliest morphologically recognizable form of HGSOC, and the distal portion of the fallopian tube (FT) is now considered to represent the site of origin of the majority of pelvic serous carcinoma [10-13].
Recent immunohistochemical and molecular studies have identified molecular alterations in the transition from FTE to STIC to eventual HGSOC (Fig. 4) .
Consequently, we believe that our focus on early detection of STIC/early stage disease, coupled with our strategy of ultimately identifying biomarkers in biofluids (e.g. serum, plasma) would allow immediate evaluation of novel markers in case-control studies and in longitudinal cohorts such as PLCO and WHI.
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