Upper Endoscopy , or EGD, is a diagnostic test that lets your doctor look inside your body and examine the lining of your esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) using a scope-like instrument, called an endoscope. The scope has a tiny light and lens attached to a long, thin tube and it produces images that your doctor can see on a video monitor. You may also hear this test referred to as an upper GI endoscopy, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), or a panendoscopy.
A diagnostic EGD allows your doctor to look at the inside of your upper digestive tract if you have having symptoms such as persistent pain, nausea, vomiting, local bleeding, or difficulty swallowing. The test is better than x-rays for finding inflammation, ulcerations, and tumors.
In addition to what can be seen, your doctor can take a small tissue sample (biopsy) or cells (cytology) to send for an examination in the laboratory and distinguish if an abnormal growth is benign or malignant (cancerous).
An endoscopy may also be done to deliver treatment for a problem located in the upper digestive tract, with little discomfort for you. For example, a polyp can be removed, a narrowed passageway can be widened, and local bleeding can be stopped.